ᆎ U+118E Unicode文字




ᆎ ᆎ






Letter, Other(文字,その他)


Base64エンコード : 4YaO




The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (English: HAHN-gool) in South Korea and Chosŏn'gŭl in North Korea, is the modern official writing system for the Korean language. The letters for the five basic consonants reflect the shape of the speech organs used to pronounce them, and they are systematically modified to indicate phonetic features; similarly, the vowel letters are systematically modified for related sounds, making Hangul a featural writing system. It has been described as a syllabic alphabet as it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, although it is not necessarily an abugida.Hangul was created in 1443 CE by King Sejong the Great in an attempt to increase literacy by serving as a complement (or alternative) to the logographic Sino-Korean Hanja, which had been used by Koreans as its primary script to write the Korean language since as early as the Gojoseon period (spanning more than a thousand years and ending around 108 BCE), along with the usage of Classical Chinese. As a result, Hangul was initially denounced and disparaged by the Korean educated class. The script became known as eonmun ("vernacular writing", 언문, 諺文) and became the primary Korean script only in the decades after Korea's independence from Japan in the mid-20th century.Modern Hangul orthography uses 24 basic letters: 14 consonant letters and 10 vowel letters. There are also 27 complex letters that are formed by combining the basic letters: 5 tense consonant letters, 11 complex consonant letters, and 11 complex vowel letters. Four basic letters in the original alphabet are no longer used: 1 vowel letter and 3 consonant letters. Korean letters are written in syllabic blocks with the alphabetic letters arranged in two dimensions. For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" (kkulbeol) is written as 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ. The syllables begin with a consonant letter, then a vowel letter, and then potentially another consonant letter called a batchim (Korean: 받침). If the syllable begins with a vowel sound, the consonant ㅇ (ng) acts as a silent placeholder. However, when ㅇ starts a sentence or is placed after a long pause, it marks a glottal stop.
Syllables may begin with basic or tense consonants but not complex ones. The vowel can be basic or complex, and the second consonant can be basic, complex or a limited number of tense consonants. How the syllable is structured depends if the baseline of the vowel symbol is horizontal or vertical. If the baseline is vertical, the first consonant and vowel are written above the second consonant (if present), but all components are written individually from top to bottom in the case of a horizontal baseline.As in traditional Chinese and Japanese writing, as well as many other texts in East Asia, Korean texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, as is occasionally still the way for stylistic purposes. However, Korean is now typically written from left to right with spaces between words serving as dividers, unlike in Japanese and Chinese. Hangul is the official writing system throughout Korea, both North and South. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China. Hangul has also seen limited use in the Cia-Cia language.[出典:Wikipedia]


たとえば、『』という文字は、韓国語の文字であり、日本語ではあまり使われない文字であるが、実はUnicodeにおいては一つの文字として扱われている。Unicodeは、すべての文字に一意のID番号を割り当て、世界中でコンピュータや携帯端末が相互に通信するための基盤である。このため、『』を含む多様な文字が、簡単に世界中に共有されることになる。 また、『』という文字は、人工知能にとっても興味深いものである。最近では、『』を含む特定の文字列によって、自己学習型の深層学習アルゴリズムが誤動作することが明らかになってきた。この現象は「Adversarial Examples(敵対的例)」と呼ばれ、人工知能を攻撃する手法として懸念されている。 さらに、『』という文字を見て、何を連想するだろうか?実は、日本の草花の一つである「ニリンソウ」を連想する人も少なくないという。ニリンソウは、花茎に『』のような模様があることから、古来から「輪紋(りんもん)」とも呼ばれ、多くの人々から愛されてきた。 最後に、『』という文字は、世界中に存在する多様な文化や歴史の中で、様々な意味を持つ文字であることがわかった。文字が紡ぐストーリーや価値観に触れることは、私たちの視野を広げ、異文化理解を深めることにつながると考えられる。今後も、『』を含む多様な文字が、世界をつなぐ大切な架け橋となっていくことでしょう。